Предиктивные молекулярно-генетические тесты в клинической онкологии
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Ключевые слова

предиктивные биомаркеры,
аденокарцинома,
рак,
молекулярно-таргетная терапия,
генетическая диагностика,
обзор

Аннотация

Молекулярно-генетическое тестирование с целью индивидуализированного назначения терапии является неотъемлемым компонентом современной практической онкологии и позволяет значительно увеличить продолжительность жизни больных. К анализируемым молекулярным событиям при этом относятся как повреждения отдельных генов (EGFR, KRAS и др.), так и некоторые интегральные характеристики опухолевого генома, например, суммарная мутационная нагрузка (tumor mutation burden, TMB) или признаки дефицита определённого звена системы репарации ДНК (микросателлитная нестабильность, дефицит гомологичной рекомбинации ДНК и т.д.). Спектр клинически значимых генетических маркеров продолжает расширяться, а некоторые из них приобретают статус «агностических», то есть информативных при опухолях самых разных локализаций. В связи с этим наблюдается тенденция замещения тестирования отдельных генов использованием мультигенных панелей, позволяющих единовременно оценить статус всех значимых предиктивных маркеров.
https://doi.org/10.37469/0507-3758-2022-68-1-17-28
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